(1856-1924)(1856-1924) 28th president of the US 1913–21, a Democrat. He kept the US out of World War I until 1917, and in Jan 1918 issued his “Fourteen Points” as a basis for a just peace settlement.
At the peace conference in Paris he secured the inclusion of the League of Nations in individual peace treaties, but these were not ratified by Congress, so the US did not join the League. Nobel Peace Prize 1919.
Wilson, born in Staunton, Virginia, was educated at Princeton University, of which he became president 1902–10. In 1910 he became governor of New Jersey. Elected US president 1912 against Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, he initiated antitrust legislation and secured valuable economic and social reforms in his progressive “New Freedom” program. Wilson also instituted a federal income tax, the first since the Civil War. He strove to keep the US neutral during World War I, but the unrestricted German U-boat campaign, sensationalized by the sinking of the British liner Lusitania (with 128 Americans lost), forced him to declare war 1917. His refusal to compromise on the text of the League of Nations’ proposal contributed to its defeat in Congress. In 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke during a nationwide campaign to gain support for the League and retired from public life.
28. predsednik SAD-a, u svom radu držao se 14. načela od kojih je 14. bilo u vezi potrebe osnivanja organizacije Ujedinjenih nacija.
(1929-) US zoologist whose books have stimulated interest in biogeography, the study of the distribution of species, and sociobiology, the evolution of behavior. He is a world authority on ants.
Wilson was born in Birmingham, Alabama. His works include Sociobiology: The New Synthesis 1975, On Human Nature 1978, and The Diversity of Life 1992.
(James) Baron Wilson of Rievaulx (1916-1995)
British Labour politician, party leader from 1963, prime minister 1964–70 and 1974–76. His premiership was dominated by the issue of UK admission to membership in the European Community (now the European Union), the social contract (unofficial agreement with the labor unions), and economic difficulties.
Wilson, born in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, studied at Jesus College, Oxford, where he gained a first-class degree in philosophy, politics, and economics. During World War II he worked as a civil servant, and in 1945 stood for Parliament and won the marginal seat of Ormskirk. Assigned by prime minister Clement Attlee to a junior post in the Ministry of Works, he progressed to become president of the Board of Trade 1947–51 (when he resigned because of social-service cuts). In 1963 he succeeded Hugh Gaitskell as Labour leader and became prime minister the following year, increasing his majority 1966. He formed a minority government Feb 1974 and achieved a majority of three Oct 1974. He resigned 1976 and was succeeded by James Callaghan. He was knighted 1976 and made a peer 1983.
In terms of electoral success Wilson was an outstanding party leader, winning four of the five general elections he fought and causing Labour to be described as the “natural party of government”. In preventing division between the left and the right of his party, he was frequently obliged to trim his policies to secure the support of the opposing wings. His attempts to rejuvenate British industry and enterprise were not always successful; perhaps his greatest achievement was setting up the Open University.
Following the Labour victory in the 1964 general election, Wilson announced his intention to revitalize British industry and created the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) in order to thwart what he saw as the negative influence of the Treasury. The attempt predictably failed and the DEA was subsequently abandoned.
In 1966, despite opposition from within his own party as well as outside, he decided to reapply for British membership in the European Community (EC). With his deputy George Brown, he toured the European capitals, canvassing support. Their efforts were to no avail; the application was vetoed by the French president Charles de Gaulle.
Wilson turned his attention to industrial relations and awaited the report of the Donovan Royal Commission on Labor Unions and Employers’ Associations, which he had set up in 1965. When it reported in 1968, an attempt to implement its recommendations, through the White Paper In Place of Strife, was blocked by opposition from labor unions and from within the cabinet.
The two years before Wilson's unexpected resignation were primarily occupied with the problems of reconciling EC membership (achieved by Edward Heath's government 1970–74), with calls within the Labour Party for withdrawal, and the revival of the economy without uncontrollable inflation. He solved the first through a referendum, which endorsed EC membership, and tackled the second by means of an incomes policy.
He retired in 1976, leaving his successor, James Callaghan, to finish what he had started. Despite rumors of undercover plots to remove him, Wilson steadfastly claimed that it had long been his intention to retire from public life after his 60th birthday. There was speculation that he had detected early signs of a diminution in his powers of memory which persuaded him to leave before they deteriorated further.
(1869-1959) Scottish physicist who in 1911 invented the Wilson cloud chamber, an apparatus for studying subatomic particles. He shared a Nobel Prize 1927.
Wilson was born near Edinburgh and studied at Manchester and Cambridge. He was professor at Cambridge 1925–34.
Wilson originally devised the cloud chamber to simulate clouds in his laboratory. From 1895 to 1899, he carried out many experiments and established that the nucleation of droplets can take place in the absence of dust particles. He also demonstrated that once the gas is supersaturated with water vapor, nucleation can occur and is greatly improved by exposure to X-rays. This showed that ions are the nucleation sites on which water droplets form in the absence of dust.
Wilson realized 1910 that the cloud chamber could possibly show the track of a charged particle moving through it, and applying a magnetic field to the chamber would cause the track to curve, giving a measure of the charge and mass of the particle. The adapted Wilson cloud chamber immediately became vital to the study of radioactivity.
During 1900–10, Wilson studied electrical conduction in dust-free air by means of a gold-leaf electroscope he devised.