(1272-1305) Scottish nationalist who led a revolt against English rule 1297, won a victory at Stirling, and assumed the title “governor of Scotland”. Edward I defeated him at Falkirk 1298, and Wallace was captured and executed.
(1875-1932) English writer of thrillers. His prolific output includes The Four Just Men 1905; a series set in Africa and including Sanders of the River 1911; crime novels such as A King by Night 1926; and melodramas such as The Ringer 1926.
(1823-1913) Welsh naturalist who collected animal and plant specimens in South America and SE Asia, and independently arrived at a theory of evolution by natural selection similar to that proposed by Charles Darwin.
In 1858, Wallace wrote an essay outlining his ideas on evolution and sent it to Darwin, who had not yet published his. Together they presented a paper to the Linnean Society that year. Wallace’s section, entitled ‘On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type’, described the survival of the fittest.
Although both thought that the human race had evolved to its present physical form by natural selection, Wallace was of the opinion that humans’ higher mental capabilities had arisen from some “metabiological” agency.
Wallace was born in Usk (now in Gwent). While working as a schoolteacher, he met English naturalist Henry Bates; together they planned a collecting trip to the Amazon, and arrived in South America 1848. When Wallace was returning to the UK 1852, his ship sank and although he survived, all his specimens were lost except those that had been shipped earlier. From 1854 to 1862 he explored the Malay Peninsula and archipelago, from which he collected more than 125,000 specimens, and in 1869-70 he made an expedition to Borneo and Maluku.
Wallace also promoted socialism, campaigning for women's suffrage and land nationalization.
Wallace’s works include A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro 1853, On the Law Which Has Regulated the Introduction of New Species 1855, The Malay Archipelago 1869, Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection 1870; and a pioneering work on zoogeography, Geographical Distribution of Animals 1876.