A city in central Japan on southern Honshu; a famous cultural center that was once the capital of Japan.
Former capital of Japan 794–1868 (when the capital was changed to Tokyo) on Honshu Island, linked by canal with Biwa Lake; Industries include electrical, chemical, and machinery plants; silk weaving; and the manufacture of porcelain, bronze, and lacquerware.
The city’s more than 2,000 temples and shrines include To-ji (1380), Kiyomizu-dera (1633), Ryoan-ji with its 15th-century Zen rock and sand garden, Sanjusangendo (1266), and the former Ashikaga shoguns’ villas Kinkaku-ji and Ginkaku-ji (the “gold and silver pavilions”). Other features are the Gion teahouse district with traditional geishas, the silk-weavers’ district of Nishijin, 17th-century sake warehouses in Fushimi, Momoyama castle, and Japan’s oldest theater, the Minamiza kabuki theater (early 17th century).
Like previous Japanese capitals, Kyoto was originally laid out in a grid pattern derived from China. Civil wars, especially that between the Taira and Minamoto clans in the 12th century and the Onin war 1467–77, caused great destruction in the capital, and it has been periodically ravaged by fire, most recently in 1864, when almost 80% of the city was laid waste. Although the shogunate was at times based elsewhere, Kyoto remained the seat of the imperial court until the Meiji restoration 1868, and is still a cultural center.
Grad u Japanu, kulturni centar.