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Israel [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

Country in SW Asia, bounded N by Lebanon, E by Syria and Jordan, S by the Gulf of Aqaba, and W by Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.
Israel has no written constitution. In 19the single-chamber legislature, the Knesset, voted to adopt a state constitution by evolution over an unspecified period of time. As in the UK, certain laws are considered to have particular constitutional significance and could, at some time, be codified into a single written document.
Supreme authority rests with the Knesset, whose 1members are elected by universal suffrage, through a system of proportional representation, for a four-year term. It is subject to dissolution within that period. The president is constitutional head of state and is elected by the Knesset for a five-year term, renewable only once. The prime minister and cabinet are mostly drawn from, and collectively responsible to, the Knesset, but occasionally a cabinet member may be chosen from outside.
The Zionist movement, calling for an independent community for Jews in their historic homeland of Palestine, began in the 19th century, and in 19Britain declared its support for the idea. In 19the League of Nations placed Palestine under British administration, and the British government was immediately faced with the rival claims of Jews who wished to settle there and the indigenous Arabs who opposed them. In 19Britain proposed separate Arab and Jewish communities; this was accepted by the Jews but not by the Arabs, and fighting broke out between them. In Europe, the Nazi Holocaust killed about 6 million Jews, and hundreds of thousands tried to get to Palestine before, during, and after World War II 1939–4Many survivors could no longer live in Europe.
creation of Israel
In 19the British plan for partition was supported by the United Nations, and when Britain ended its Palestinian mandate 194an independent State of Israel was proclaimed, with David Ben-Gurion as prime minister. Neighboring Arab states sent forces to crush Israel but failed, and when a cease-fire agreement was reached 194Israel controlled more land than had been originally allocated to it. The non-Jewish-occupied remainder of Palestine, known as the West Bank, was occupied by Jordan. The creation of Israel encouraged Jewish immigration on a large scale, about 2 million having arrived from all over the world by 196Hundreds of thousands of Arab residents fled from Israel to neighboring countries, such as Jordan and Lebanon. In 19a number of Palestinian Arabs in exile founded the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), aiming to overthrow Israel.
Arab–Israeli wars
During the 196there was considerable tension between Israel and Egypt, which, under President Nasser, had become a leader in the Arab world. His nationalization of the Suez Canal 19provided an opportunity for Israel, with Britain and France, to attack Egypt and occupy a part of Palestine that Egypt had controlled since 194the Gaza Strip, from which Israel was forced by UN and US pressure to withdraw 195Ten years later, in the Six-Day War, Israel gained the whole of Jerusalem, the West Bank area of Jordan, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai peninsula in Egypt, and the Golan Heights in Syria. All were placed under Israeli law, although the Sinai was returned to Egypt under the terms of the Camp David Agreements. Ben-Gurion resigned 19and was succeeded by Levi Eshkol, leading a coalition government; in 19three of the coalition parties combined to form the Israel Labour Party. In 19Golda Meir became Labour Party prime minister. In Oct 197toward the end of her administration, the Yom Kippur War brok
e out on the holiest day of the Jewish year. Israel was attacked by Egypt and Syria, and after nearly three weeks of fighting, with heavy losses, a cease-fire was agreed. Golda Meir resigned 19and was succeeded by General Yitzhak Rabin, heading a Labour-led coalition.
Camp David Agreements
In the 19elections the Consolidation Party (Likud) bloc, led by Menachem Begin, won an unexpected victory, and Begin became prime minister. Within five months relations between Egypt and Israel changed dramatically, mainly owing to initiatives by President Sadat of Egypt, encouraged by US president Jimmy Carter. Setting a historical precedent for an Arab leader, Sadat visited Israel to address the Knesset 197and the following year the Egyptian and Israeli leaders met at Camp David, in the US, to sign agreements for peace in the Middle East. A treaty was signed 197and in 19Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors, to the dismay of most of the Arab world.
Israeli forces enter Lebanon
Israel withdrew from Sinai by 19but continued to occupy the Golan Heights. In the same year Israel, without consulting Egypt, entered Lebanon and surrounded W Beirut, in pursuit of 6,0PLO fighters who were trapped there. A split between Egypt and Israel was avoided by the efforts of the US special negotiator Philip Habib, who secured the evacuation from Beirut to other Arab countries of about 15,0PLO and Syrian fighters Aug 1982.
Israel's alleged complicity in massacres in two Palestinian refugee camps increased Arab hostility. Talks between Israel and Lebanon, between Dec 19and May 198resulted in an agreement, drawn up by US secretary of state George Shultz, calling for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon within three months. Syria refused to acknowledge the agreement, and left some 30,0troops, with about 7,0PLO members, in the northeast; Israel retaliated by refusing to withdraw its forces from the south.
economic problems
During this time Begin faced growing domestic problems, including rapidly rising inflation and opposition to his foreign policies. In 19he resigned, and Yitzhak Shamir formed a shaky coalition. Elections July 19proved inconclusive, with the Labour Alignment, led by Shimon Peres, winning seats in the Knesset, and Likud, led by Shamir, 41.
Neither leader was able to form a viable coalition, but it was eventually agreed that a government of national unity would be formed, with Peres as prime minister for the first months, until Oct 198and Shamir as his deputy, and then a reversal of the positions.
Israeli forces withdraw
Meanwhile the problems in Lebanon continued. In 198under pressure from Syria, President Gemayel of Lebanon abrogated the 19treaty with Israel, but the government of national unity in Tel Aviv continued to plan the withdrawal of its forces, although it might lead to outright civil war in S Lebanon. Guerrilla groups of the Shiite community of S Lebanon took advantage of the situation by attacking the departing Israeli troops. Israel retaliated by attacking Shiite villages. Most of the withdrawal was complete by June 198Prime Minister Peres met King Hussein of Jordan secretly in the south of France 198and later, in a speech to the UN, Peres said he would not rule out the possibility of an international conference on the Middle East. PLO leader Yassir Arafat also had talks with Hussein and later, in Cairo, renounced PLO guerrilla activity outside Israeli-occupied territory. Domestically, the government of national unity was having some success with its economic policies, inflation falling in 19to m
anageable levels, but from 19it was faced with an organized Palestinian uprising in the occupied territories, the Intifada.
political crisis
The Nov 19general election resulted in a hung parliament; after lengthy negotiations, Shamir formed another coalition with Peres and the Labour Party. Shamir's harsh handling of Palestinian protests, and differences over dealings with the PLO, broke the partnership March 19when the coalition fell after a vote of no confidence. After a three-month political crisis, Shamir succeeded in forming a new coalition government which included members of Likud and far-right nationalist and religious parties.
proposals for occupied territories
Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak proposed a ten-point program for elections in the occupied territories leading toward an unspecified form of autonomous self-rule. Labour quickly agreed to the provisions, and the US approved the plan. In 19Likud accepted some of the provisions but remained opposed to any PLO role in the negotiations. In Oct 19the killing of at least Palestinians by Israeli troops on Jerusalem's Temple Mount drew widespread international condemnation.
In Jan 19the Gulf War erupted with UN-coalition air raids against Iraq. In retaliation, Scud missiles were launched against Israel and Israel's nonretaliation was widely praised.
In Aug 19Shamir agreed to an amended Middle East peace plan, and in Sept released a number of Palestinian prisoners as part of a hostage exchange.
Shamir loses majority
The extreme fundamentalists in Shamir's coalition withdrew their support Jan 19because of their dissatisfaction with Israel's participation in the Middle East peace talks. This left Shamir with the prospect of a general election to try to restore his majority in the Knesset. In Feb 19Yitzhak Rabin replaced Shimon Peres as leader of the Israel Labour Party. In the national elections held June 19the Labour party defeated Likud, and a month later Rabin was confirmed as the country's new prime minister, heading the first Labor-dominated government since 197In Aug 19US-Israeli relations improved when US president Bush and Rabin agreed a loan pact to aid Israel's absorption of several hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jewish emigrés. The move solved an issue considered to be a major obstacle in the Middle East peace talks.
expulsion of Palestinians
In Dec 1994Palestinians, alleged to be members of the outlawed Hamas Islamic Resistance Movement, were expelled from Israel and the occupied territories and obliged to set up camp in “no man’s land” on the Lebanese border (requests for asylum having been refused by Lebanon). Despite subsequent UN condemnation of the expulsion, the Israeli government refused to reconsider its decision.
In Jan 19the ban on contacts with the PLO was formally lifted, and in Feb the government agreed to allow 1of the 4deported Palestinians to return to Israel. This move was welcomed by the US government but condemned as insufficient by Arabs. In March the Knesset elected Ezer Weizman president, and in the same month Binyamin “Bibi” Netanyahu succeeded Yitzhak Shamir as leader of the Likud party. The Middle East peace process resumed in Washington in April, with face-to face talks between Palestinians and Israelis. Israel renewed attacks against southern Lebanon in July in an attempt to force the Lebanese government to take action against Hezbollah units based there, which had been attacking Israeli targets. The scale and ferocity of the Israeli action brought widespread international criticism and threatened to derail the Middle East peace process.
Israeli–PLO peace accord
In Sept 199Rabin and PLO leader Yassir Arafat reached a preliminary peace agreement in Washington, based on mutual recognition and providing for limited autonomy in the Gaza Strip and West Bank town of Jericho and a phased withdrawal of Israeli troops from the occupied territories. The accord followed several months of Norwegian-mediated talks between Israel and the PLO, made possible by Israel's recognition in Sept of the PLO's right to participate in the peace process. In Dec 19the last of the Palestinian deportees in S Lebanon were allowed to return.
Talks on implementation of the Sept 19accord stalled after outbreaks of extremist violence in the occupied territories, which began with the massacre in Hebron of Palestinian worshipers by an Israeli settler Feb 199The talks resumed after UN condemnation of the massacre and in May 19the first phase of the accord (the Gaza-Jericho agreement) was finalized and signed in Cairo. By the end of the month Israeli troops had been withdrawn (although many were relocated around Jewish settlements) and a Palestinian police force had been drafted in to replace them. In July 19the 46-year-old “state of war” with Jordan was formally ended and a future peace with Syria seemed credible. In the same month Yassir Arafat returned from exile to head an interim body, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), appointed to govern the newly liberated territories until the holding of free elections.
extremist violence
Extremist attacks, principally the work of the militant Islamic groups, Hamas and Islamic Jihad, continued. In Oct 19Rabin, Arafat, and foreign minister, Shimon Peres, were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. In Nov 199following several attacks by militant suicide bombers, Israel closed its borders with the Gaza Strip. A limited number of work permits were later issued, but the closures increased pressure on the largely PLO-dominated PNA, who since assuming power had had to come to terms with the reality of a strong, and potentially hostile, fundamentalist presence in Gaza. In Feb 19the peace process stalled over the issues of militant violence and continued Israeli settlement, but later resumed. Rabin was assassinated following a peace rally in Tel Aviv Nov 1995.
Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine; Also called: Yisrael, Zion.
Ancient kingdom of N Palestine, formed after the death of Solomon by Jewish peoples seceding from the rule of his son Rehoboam and electing Jeroboam in his place.
It is named for the descendants of the Old Testament patriarch Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel. Jews believe that the land of Israel was given to them for ever by God when he brought them out of Egypt under Moses’ guidance. The name is therefore sometimes used to refer to the Jews themselves, as in “the people of Israel” or, in the context of biblical times, “Israelites”.

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