Powerful family of ancient Rome, which included Gaius Julius Caesar, whose grand-nephew and adopted son Augustus assumed the name of Caesar and passed it on to his adopted son Tiberius. From then on, it was used by the successive emperors, becoming a title of the Roman rulers. The titles “tsar” in Russia and “kaiser” in Germany were both derived from the name Caesar.
Conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC); Also called: Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar.
(100-44 BC) Roman statesman and general. He formed with Pompey and Crassus the First Triumvirate 60 BC. He conquered Gaul 58–50 and invaded Britain 55 and 54. He fought against Pompey 49–48, defeating him at Pharsalus. After a period in Egypt Caesar returned to Rome as dictator from 46. He was assassinated by conspirators on the Ides of March 44.
A patrician, Caesar allied himself with the popular party, and when elected to the office of aedile 65, nearly ruined himself with lavish amusements for the Roman populace. Although a free thinker, he was elected chief pontiff 63 and appointed governor of Spain 61. Returning to Rome 60, he formed with Pompey and Crassus the First Triumvirate. As governor of Gaul, he was engaged in its subjugation 58–50, defeating the Germans under Ariovistus and selling thousands of the Belgic tribes into slavery. In 55 he crossed into Britain, returning for a further campaigning visit 54. A revolt by the Gauls under Vercingetorix 52 was crushed 51. His governorship of Gaul ended 49, and after the death of Crassus, Pompey became his rival. Declaring “the die is cast”, Caesar crossed the Rubicon (the small river separating Gaul from Italy) to meet the army raised against him by Pompey. In the ensuing civil war, he followed Pompey to Greece 48, defeated him at Pharsalus, and followed him to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered. Cae
sar stayed some months in Egypt, where Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, gave birth to his son, Caesarion. Caesar executed a lightning campaign 47 against King Pharnaces II (ruled 63–47 BC) in Asia Minor, which he summarized: Veni vidi vici “I came, I saw, I conquered”. He was awarded a ten-year dictatorship 46, and with his final victory over the sons of Pompey at Munda in Spain 45, he was awarded the dictatorship for life 44. On 15 March 44, he was stabbed to death by conspirators (led by Brutus and Cassius) at the foot of Pompey’s statue in the Senate house. His commentaries on the campaigns and the civil war survive.
Samodržac, samovladar, neograničen vladalac ili gospodar.
Porodično ime rimske patricijske porodice Julija; docnije su ga uzeli, kao titulu, svi rimski carevi sem Vitelija (od ove reči postala je slovenska car i nemačka kajzer).