1. City in Georgia (USA); zip code 31626.
2. State capital and largest city of Massachusetts; ; Also called: Beantown.
3. Town in Indiana (USA).
(US) Industrial and commercial center, capital of Massachusetts, US; ; metropolitan area 4,171,600. A publishing center and industrial port on Massachusetts Bay, its economy is dominated by financial and health services and government. The subway system (begun 1897) was the first in the United States. Boston's famous baseball team, the Red Sox, are based at Fenway Park.
Founded by Puritans 1630, Boston was a center of opposition to British trade restrictions, culminating in the Boston Tea Party 1773. After the first shots of the American Revolution in 1775 at nearby Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought outside the city; the British withdrew 1776. In the 19th century, Boston became the metropolis of New England. Urban redevelopment and the growth of service industries have compensated for the city's industrial decline.
The 1.5-mile Freedom trail covers 16 sites connected with the American Revolution, including Paul Revere House, which was built in the 17th century, and is the oldest house in Boston; Old State House 1713; Old North Church 1723; Old South Meeting House 1729; Faneuil Hall 1742; King’s Chapel 1754; Old Granary Burial Ground; and the Bunker Hill Monument. Beacon Hill, a residential area built in the 18th and early 19th centuries, includes Louisburg Square, Mount Vernon and Chestnut streets, Harrison Gray Otis House, Nichols House Museum, and the African Meeting House 1806, the oldest black church still standing in the US. The USS Constitution 1794 (“Old Ironsides”) is berthed here. The New England Aquarium includes a recreation of a coral reef.
Notable museums are the Museum of Fine Arts, with a West Wing designed by the architect I M Pei; the Isabella Stewart Gariner Museum, with its interior courtyard and Spanish cloister; and the Museum of Science. The John F Kennedy Library and Museum are in South Boston. The Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Boston Pops perform in Symphony Hall, and in the summer the Boston Pops give outdoor concerts in the Hatch Memorial Shell.
Of the 64 colleges and universities in the Boston area, among the most notable are Harvard University 1636, the oldest in the country, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIIT), Boston University, Northeastern University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, and Wellesley College. Many famous jazz musicians have studied at the Berklee School of Music. The Boston Latin School 1635 was the first public school in America.
The Back Bay neighborhood was built in the 19th century on land reclaimed from the sea, and includes several Romanesque Revival churches designed by Henry Hobson Richardson, the best known of which is Trinity Church 1877. The North End was settled by Irish immigrants in the 19th century, followed by Italians after World War I. The Union Oyster House, the oldest restaurant in Boston was established 1826. Boston Common, the oldest public park in the United States, dates from the 17th century.
In the 19th century Frederick Law Olmsted designed a system of parks and tree-lined avenues, including the Charles River Esplanade, Commonwealth Avenue, and the Public Garden (the first botanical garden in the United States, with its famous swan boats). The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) was set up 1957; the architect I M Pei was put in charge of renewal plans for the city, and was responsible for Government Center and the John Hancock Tower. Market buildings and warehouses near the waterfront have been restored, notably the Faneuil Hall marketplace, with Quincy Market, restaurants, outdoor cafes, and shops.
Grad u SAD-u, prestonica i najveći grad Masačusetsa.