Angola | englesko - srpski prevod



1. A republic in southwestern Africa on the Atlantic coast.
2. City in Indiana (USA); zip code 46703.
3. Village in New York (USA); zip code 14006.
Country in SW Africa, bounded W by the Atlantic ocean, N and NE by Zaire, E by Zambia, and S by Namibia. The Cabinda enclave, a district of Angola, is bounded W by the Atlantic Ocean, N by the river Congo, and E and S by Zaire.
The 1975 constitution, amended 1976, 1980, 1990, and 1992, created a one-party “People’s Republic”, with political power held by the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola [MPLA] (from 1977, the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola–Workers’ Party [MPLA–PT]). Since 1992 multiparty politics have functioned in both presidential and assembly elections. There is a 223-member national assembly, elected by a system of proportional representation for a four-year term, and a president, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term.
Angola became a Portuguese colony 1491 and an Overseas Territory of Portugal 1951. A movement for complete independence, the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), was established 1956, based originally in the Congo. This was followed by the formation of two other nationalist movements, the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). War for independence from Portugal broke out 1961, with MPLA supported by socialist and communist states, UNITA helped by the Western powers, and FNLA backed by the “nonleft” power groups of southern Africa.
Three months of civil war followed the granting of full independence 1975, with MPLA and UNITA the main contestants, and foreign mercenaries and South African forces helping FNLA. By 1975 MPLA, with the help of mainly Cuban forces, controlled most of the country and had established the People's Republic of Angola in Luanda. Agostinho Neto, the MPLA leader, became its first president, and in 1977 the MPLA was restructured as the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola–Workers' Party (MPLA–PT). FNLA and UNITA had, in the meantime, proclaimed their own People's Democratic Republic of Angola, based in Huambo. President Neto died 1979 and was succeeded by José Eduardo dos Santos, who maintained Neto's links with the Soviet bloc.
Lusaka Agreement.
UNITA guerrillas, supported by South Africa, continued to operate and combined forces raided Angola 1980–81 to attack bases of the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), who were fighting for Namibia's independence. South Africa proposed a complete withdrawal of its forces 1983 if Angola could guarantee that the areas vacated would not be filled by Cuban or SWAPO units.
Angola accepted South Africa's proposals 1984, and a settlement was made (the Lusaka Agreement), whereby a Joint Monitoring Commission was set up to oversee South Africa's withdrawal, which was completed 1985. Relations between the two countries deteriorated 1986 when further South African raids into Angola took place. UNITA also continued to receive South African support. Despite the securing of a peace treaty with South Africa and Cuba 1988, guerrilla activity by the UNITA rebels began again 1989.
fighting resumes after free elections.
A cease-fire negotiated June 1989 between the Luanda government and UNITA's Jonas Savimbi collapsed two months later.
However, following the signing of an official peace treaty May 1991, President dos Santos promised a return to multiparty politics, and the government proclaimed an amnesty for all political prisoners July 1991. A general election victory Sept 1992 by the MPLA–PT was disputed by UNITA, which recommenced the civil war on 30 Oct and by early Nov controlled more than half the country. A runoff race between dos Santos and Savimbi was required for the presidency, but the decision to rerun the elections was subsequently rescinded and, in a reconciliatory gesture, UNITA was offered seats in the new government. Despite UNITA's acceptance of the offer, fighting between government and rebel forces resumed.
escalation of hostilities.
Fighting intensified during 1993 and famine conditions were reported in UNITA-besieged towns. In April the Dos Santos government was formally recognized by the US government. Emergency airlifts to besieged areas began in early Sept and in the same month a United Nations (UN) arms and fuel embargo was imposed against UNITA.
peace treaty.
In Aug 1994, after months of negotiation, a procedural agreement, intended to lead to a permanent settlement, was signed by government and UNITA representatives. Heavy fighting preceded the signing of a formal peace treaty in the Zambian capital, Lusaka, in Nov, which went ahead despite the absence of UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi. The first UN peacekeeping troops were drafted in April 1995.

1. Angola

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