(1898-1952) English actress. She began as a dancer in the 1920s and later took leading roles in musical comedies. Her greatest successes were in the play Private Lives 1930–31, written especially for her by Noël Coward, with whom she co-starred, and The King and I 1951.
D(avid) H(erbert) (1885-1930) English writer whose work expresses his belief in emotion and the sexual impulse as creative and true to human nature. His writing first received attention after the publication of the semiautobiographical Sons and Lovers 1913. Other novels include The Rainbow 1915, Women in Love 1921, and Lady Chatterley’s Lover 1928. Lawrence also wrote short stories (for example, ‘The Woman Who Rode Away’) and poetry.
The Rainbow was suppressed for obscenity, and Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned as obscene in the UK until 1960.
The son of a Nottinghamshire miner, Lawrence studied at University College, Nottingham, and became a teacher. In 1914 he married Frieda von Richthofen, ex-wife of his university professor, with whom he had run away 1912. Frieda was the model for Ursula Brangwen in The Rainbow and its sequel, Women in Love; Sons and Lovers includes a portrayal of his mother (died 1911). Lawrence’s travels in search of health (he suffered from tuberculosis, from which he eventually died near Nice, France) prompted books such as Mornings in Mexico 1927.
T(homas) E(dward) known as Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935)
British soldier, scholar, and translator. Appointed to the military intelligence department in Cairo, Egypt, during World War I, he took part in negotiations for an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Turks, and in 1916 attached himself to the emir Faisal. He became a guerrilla leader of genius, combining raids on Turkish communications with the organization of a joint Arab revolt, described in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom 1926.
Lawrence was born in Wales, studied at Oxford, and during 1910–14 took part in archeological expeditions to Syria and Mesopotamia. On the outbreak of war he was recalled to England and employed producing maps of the Arab regions. When the sheriff of Mecca revolted against the Turks 1916 Lawrence was given the rank of colonel and went with the British Mission to King Hussein. There he reorganized the Arab army, which he practically commanded, and conducted guerrilla operations on the flank of the British Army 1916–18. In 1918 he led his successful Arabs into Damascus. At the end of the war he was awarded the DSO for his services, and became adviser to the Foreign Office on Arab affairs. Disappointed by the Paris Peace Conference's failure to establish Arab independence, he joined the Royal Air Force in 1922 as an aircraftman under the name Ross, transferring to the tank corps under the name T E Shaw in 1923 when his identity became known. In 1935 he was killed in a motorcycle accident.
(1769-1830) English painter. He was the leading portraitist of his day. He became painter to George III 1792 and president of the Royal Academy 1820–30. Queen Charlotte 1789 (National Gallery, London) is one of his finest portraits.
O(rlando) (1901-1958) US physicist. His invention of the cyclotron particle accelerator pioneered the production of artificial radioisotopes and the synthesis of new transuranic elements. Nobel Prize 1939.
During World War II, Lawrence was involved with the separation of uranium-235 and plutonium for the development of the atomic bomb, and he organized the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories at which much of the work on this project was carried out. After the war, he continued as a believer in nuclear weapons and advocated the acceleration of their development.
Lawrence was born in South Dakota and studied there and at Minnesota, Chicago, and Yale universities. He was professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1930 and director from 1936 of the Radiation Laboratory, which he built into a major research center for nuclear physics.
The first cyclotrons were made in 1930 and were only a few centimeters in diameter. Each larger and improved design produced particles of higher energy than its predecessor, and a 68-cm/27-in model was used to produce artificial radioactivity. Among the results obtained from the use of the accelerated particles in nuclear transformations was the disintegration of the lithium nucleus to produce helium nuclei.
St Christian martyr. Probably born in Spain, he became a deacon of Rome under Pope Sixtus II and, when summoned to deliver the treasures of the church, displayed the beggars in his charge, for which he was broiled on a gridiron. Feast day 10 Aug.
1. City in Indiana (USA); zip code 46226.
2. City in Kansas (USA).
3. City in Massachusetts (USA).
4. Village in Michigan (USA); zip code 49064.
5. Village in Nebraska (USA); zip code 68957.
6. Village in New York (USA); zip code 11559.
7. Village in Texas (USA).
(Massachusetts) Town in Massachusetts, US; Industries include textiles, clothing, paper, and radio equipment. The town was established 1845 to utilize power from the Merrimack Rapids on a site first settled 1655.(Kansas) City in NE Kansas, US, on the Kansas River between Topeka to the W and Kansas City to the East; seat of Douglas County; Its main industries are food processing and chemicals.
The University of Kansas 1863 is here. Lawrence was terrorized by Quantrill's Raiders 1863.