Type of reggae music with a rhythmic, rapid-fire, semispoken vocal line. A macho swagger is a common element in the lyrics. Ragga developed around 1990 from “toasting”, itself an offshoot of reggae. Ragga performers include the Jamaicans Shabba Ranks, Anthony Red Rose, and Ninja Man. Performers and fans of ragga call themselves ragamuffins.
Toasting is a less frenetic talkover style which began with Jamaican disc jockeys speaking lines over instrumental (dub) records. Toasting on record was pioneered in the 1970s by U Roy and Dennis Alcapone.