Funnel-shaped; contents pass by gravity into a receptacle below.
(1890-1966) US actress and celebrity reporter. From 1915 she appeared in many silent films and after a brief retirement was hired as a radio gossip reporter in 1936. From 1938 Hopper wrote a syndicated newspaper column about the private lives of the Hollywood stars. She carried on a widely publicized feud with rival columnist Louella Parsons.
Born Elda Furry in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, she left home as a teenager to begin a theatrical career. First appearing on the Broadway stage in 1909, she adopted her professional name after marrying actor DeWolf Hopper.
(1906-1992) US computer pioneer who created the first compiler and helped invent the computer language COBOL. She also coined the term “debug”.
Hopper was educated at Vassar and Yale. She volunteered for duty in World War II with the Naval Ordinance Computation Project. This was the beginning of a long association with the navy (she was appointed rear admiral 1983). After the war, Hopper joined a firm that eventually would become the Univac division of Sperry-Rand, to manufacture a commercial computer.
In 1945 she was ordered to Harvard University to assist Howard Aiken in building a computer. One day a breakdown of the machine was found to be due to a moth that had flown into the computer. Aiken came into the laboratory as Hopper was dealing with the insect. “Why aren’t you making numbers, Hopper?” he asked. Hopper replied: “I am debugging the machine!”
Hopper's main contribution was to create the first computer language, together with the compiler needed to translate the instructions into a form that the computer could work with. In 1959, she was invited to join a Pentagon team attempting to create and standardize a single computer language for commercial use. This led to the development of COBOL, still one of the most widely used languages.
(1882-1967) US painter and etcher. He was one of the foremost American Realists. His views of life in New England and New York in the 1930s and 1940s, painted in rich, dark colors, convey a brooding sense of emptiness and solitude, as in Nighthawks 1942 (Art Institute, Chicago).
Hopper's teacher Robert Henri, associated with the Ashcan School, was a formative influence.
Hopper was a realist who never followed avant-garde trends.
(1936-) US film actor and director. He caused a sensation with the antiestablishment Easy Rider 1969, but his The Last Movie 1971 was poorly received by the critics. He made a comeback in the 1980s directing such films as Colors 1988. His work as an actor includes Rebel Without a Cause 1955, The American Friend/Der amerikanische Freund 1977, Apocalypse Now 1979, Blue Velvet 1986, and Speed 1994.
ETYM See Hop.
1. One that hops.
2. A leaping insect; specifically; an immature hopping form of an insect (as a grasshopper or locust).
1. Usually funnel-shaped receptacle for delivering material (as grain or coal); also; any of various other receptacles for the temporary storage of material
2. A freight car with a floor sloping to one or more hinged doors for discharging bulk materials — called also hopper car
3. A box in which a bill to be considered by a legislative body is dropped
4. A tank holding liquid and having a device for releasing its contents through a pipe
5. A mix of things to be considered or done
[from the shaking motion of hoppers used to feed grain into a mill]