A form of canasta in which sequences can be melded.
1. A Republic in western South America; Simon Bolivar founded Bolivia in 1825 after winning independence from Spain.
2. Town in North Carolina (USA); zip code 28422.
Landlocked country in central Andes mountains in South America, bounded N and E by Brazil, SE by Paraguay, S by Argentina, and W by Chile and Peru.
Achieving independence 1825 after nearly 300 years of Spanish rule, Bolivia adopted its first constitution 1826, and since then a number of variations have been produced. The present one provides for a congress consisting of a 27-member senate and a 130-member chamber of deputies, both elected for four years by universal suffrage. The president, directly elected for a four-year term, is head of both state and government and chooses the cabinet. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into nine departments, each governed by a prefect appointed by the president.
Once part of the Inca civilization, Bolivia was conquered by Spain 1538 and remained under Spanish rule until liberated by Simón Bolívar 1825 (after whom the country took its name). Throughout most of the 19th century Bolivia was governed by a series of caudillos (military or political leaders). The first of these, Andrés Santa Cruz, seized power 1829 and created a Peru-Bolivia confederation 1836. The confederation lasted only three years: it was put down by Chilean troops 1839.
After the early 1870s, white and mixed-blood (cholo) landlords took virtually all the land remaining to the Indians.
loss of territory.
During the War of the Pacific 1881, Bolivia lost its coastal province and outlet to the sea.
Two decades later, further territory was lost to Brazil. Between 1932 and 1935 the Bolivian army waged a disastrous war (the Chaco War) with Paraguay over the border region between the two countries.
army v reformers.
In the 1951 election, Dr Víctor Paz Estenssoro, the National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) candidate exiled in Argentina since 1946, failed to win an absolute majority, and an army junta took over. A popular uprising, supported by MNR and a section of the army, demanded the return of Paz, who became president and began a program of social reform. He lost the 1956 election but returned to power 1960. In 1964 a coup, led by Vice President General René Barrientos, overthrew Paz and installed a military junta. Two years later Barrientos won the presidency. He was opposed by left-wing groups and in 1967 a guerrilla uprising led by Dr Ernesto “Che” Guevara was put down with US help.
In 1969 President Barrientos died in an airplane crash and was replaced by the vice president. He was later replaced by General Alfredo Ovando, who was ousted by General Juan Torres, who in turn was ousted by Col Hugo Banzer Suárez 1971. Banzer announced a return to constitutional government, but another attempted coup 1974 prompted him to postpone elections and ban all labor union and political activity. Banzer agreed to elections 1978, but they were declared invalid after allegations of fraud, and, in that year, there were two more military coups.
In the 1979 elections Dr Siles and Dr Paz received virtually equal votes, and an interim administration was installed. An election 1980 proved equally inconclusive and was followed by the 189th military coup in Bolivia's 154 years of independence. General Luis García became president but resigned the following year after allegations of drug trafficking. He was replaced by General Celso Torrelio, who promised to fight corruption and return the country to democracy within three years. In 1982 a mainly civilian cabinet was appointed, but rumors of an impending coup resulted in Torrelio's resignation. A military junta led by the hard-line General Guido Vildoso was installed.
With the economy deteriorating, the junta asked congress to elect a president, and Dr Siles Zuazo was chosen to head a coalition cabinet. Economic aid from Europe and the US, cut off in 1980, was resumed, but the economy continued to deteriorate. The government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and in June the president was temporarily abducted by a group of right-wing army officers.
Siles resigned 1985 and an election was held. No candidate won an absolute majority and Paz, aged 77, was chosen by congress.
Austerity measures imposed by Paz's administration reduced inflation from 24,000% in 1985 to 3% in the first half of 1989.
In the 1989 elections the MNR won marginally more votes in the chamber of deputies than the Nationalist Democratic Action Party (ADN), but did not obtain a clear majority. After an indecisive presidential contest, Jaime Paz Zamora of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) was elected president by the congress in a power-sharing arrangement with former military dictator Hugo Banzer Suárez. Paz Zamora pledged to maintain fiscal and monetary discipline and preserve free-market policies.
The MNR won the 1993 elections and its leader Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada was elected president, favoring increased foreign investment and closer relations with the US.