(1816-1894) US politician and American Civil War general. He was Speaker in the US House of Representatives 1854–57. At the outbreak of the war 1861, he was appointed major general in command of the Department of Annapolis. Defeated by Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, he was sent to New Orleans 1863, taking command of the Department of the Gulf. He led the ill-fated Red River expedition 1864.
Born in Waltham, Massachusetts, US, Banks was governor of Massachusetts 1857–60. He entered Congress after the end of the Civil War and served there until 1891.
(1743-1820) British naturalist and explorer. He accompanied Capt James Cook on his voyage around the world 1768–71 and brought back 3,600 plants, 1,400 of them never before classified. The Banksia genus of shrubs is named for him.
Banks was born in London and educated at Oxford. Inheriting a fortune, he made his first voyage 1766, to Labrador and Newfoundland. In 1768 Banks obtained the position of naturalist on an expedition to the southern hemisphere in the Endeavour, commanded by Capt James Cook. The expedition explored the coasts of New Zealand and Australia. Banks’s plant-collecting activities at the first landing place in Australia (near present-day Sydney) gave rise to the name of the area— Botany Bay. He also studied the Australian fauna.
Returning to England 1771, he brought back a vast number of plant specimens, more than 800 of which were previously unknown. As a result of the friendship between Banks and George III, the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew—of which Banks was the honorary director—became a focus of botanical research.
In 1772 Banks went on his last expedition, to Iceland, where he studied geysers. He was instrumental in establishing the first colony at Botany Bay in 1788.
1. City in Oregon (USA); zip code 97106.
2. Town in Alabama (USA); zip code 36005.
3. Town in Arkansas (USA); zip code 71631.