(Julian) (1900-1950) German composer. He was a US citizen from 1943. He wrote chamber and orchestral music and collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on operas such as Die Dreigroschenoper/The Threepenny Opera 1928 and Aufsteig und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny/The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny 1930, all attacking social corruption (Mahagonny caused a riot at its premiere in Leipzig). He tried to evolve a new form of music theater, using subjects with a contemporary relevance and the simplest musical means. In 1935 he left Germany for the US where he wrote a number of successful scores for Broadway, among them the antiwar musical Johnny Johnson 1936 (including the often covered ‘September Song’) and Street Scene 1947 based on an Elmer Rice play set in the Depression.