(1819-1905) Russian astronomer who made an accurate determination of the constant of precession. He discovered about 500 double stars.
Struve was born in Dorpat (now Tartu), Estonia, studied there, and worked at the Pulkovo Observatory, near St Petersburg, from 1839. From 1847 to 1862 he was also a military adviser in St Petersburg. In 1862 he succeeded his father Wilhelm von Struve as director of the observatory.
Struve studied Saturn's rings, discovered a satellite of Uranus, and calculated the mass of Neptune. He also concerned himself with the measurement of stellar parallax, the movement of the Sun through space, and the structure of the universe, although he was among those astronomers who erroneously believed our Galaxy to be the extent of the whole universe.
(1897-1963) Russian-born US astronomer who developed a nebular spectrograph to study interstellar gas clouds. In 1938 he showed that ionized hydrogen is present in interstellar matter. He also determined that the interstellar hydrogen is concentrated in the galactic plane.
Struve was born in Kharkov, where his father Ludwig von Struve was director of the observatory. He served in the Imperial Russian Army on the Turkish front during World War I, then graduated from Kharkov. Conscripted into the counterrevolutionary White Army during the Civil War in 1919, he fled to Turkey in 1920 and immigrated to the US 1921. He worked at the Yerkes Observatory, becoming its director 1932. He was professor of astrophysics at the University of Chicago 1932–50 and at the University of California at Berkeley 1950–59. He was also the founder of the McDonald Observatory in Texas, and the first director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. In 1962 he was appointed joint professor of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton and the California Institute of Technology.
Struve did early work on stellar rotation and demonstrated the rotation of blue giant stars and the relationship between stellar temperature (and hence spectral type) and speed of rotation. In 1931 he found, as he had anticipated, that stars that spun at a high rate deposited gaseous material around their equators.
Struve believed that the establishment of a planetary system should be thought of as the normal course of events in stellar evolution and not a freak occurrence.
(Karl) (1854-1920) Russian astronomer, an expert on Saturn. His other work was largely concerned with features of the Solar System, although he shared the family interest in stellar astronomy.
Struve was born in Pulkovo, near St Petersburg, and studied at Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), traveled in Europe and visited major centers of astronomical research. He began his career at Pulkovo Observatory (founded by his grandfather Wilhelm von Struve), becoming its director 1890. In 1895 he moved to Germany, first as professor at Königsberg, and from 1904 as director of the Observatory of Berlin-Babalsberg (the Neubabalsberg Observatory from 1913).
Among the many features of the Solar System studied by Struve were the transit of Venus, the orbits of Mars and Saturn, the satellites (especially Iapetus and Titan) of Saturn, and Jupiter and Neptune. Struve's 1898 paper on the ring system of Saturn formed the basis of much of his later research.
(Gustav Wilhelm) (Ottovich) (1858-1920)
Russian astronomer, an expert on the occultation of stars during a total lunar eclipse, and on stellar motion.
Struve was born in Pulkovo, near St Petersburg. The son of Otto Wilhelm von Struve, he followed the family tradition by studying astronomy at Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia). He began his research at Pulkovo Observatory, and visited observatories in many European countries. In 1894 he moved to the University of Kharkov, where he became professor 1897 and director of the observatory. From 1919 he was professor at Tauris University in Simferopol.
Struve was interested in precession and he investigated the whole question of motion within the Solar System. This led him to work on the positions and motions of stars, and to an estimation of the rate of rotation of the Galaxy.