(1710-1796) Scottish mathematician and philosopher. His Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense 1764 attempted to counter the skeptical conclusions of Scottish philosopher David Hume. He believed that the existence of the material world and the human soul is self-evident “by the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned”.
(1845-1918) Australian politician, born in Scotland; premier of New South Wales 1894–99, prime minister 1904–05. While premier he brought in reforms in the areas of taxation, public administration, land law, and social legislation. He was an equivocal supporter of federation but entered the first federal parliament as leader of the conservative Free Trade Party. In 1904 he was able to form a coalition government but his majority was not secure enough for his government to forward initiatives and he was defeated after ten months. He retired from parliament in 1908.