(1890-1965) British pianist. She is remembered for her morale-boosting National Gallery concerts in World War II, her transcription of the Bach chorale Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring, and her interpretations of Beethoven.
(1883-1964) Austrian physicist who emigrated to the US shortly after sharing a Nobel Prize in 1936 for the discovery of cosmic radiation.
Hess was born in Waldstein and educated at Graz. From 1906 to 1920 he worked in Vienna, studying radioactivity and atmospheric ionization. He was professor at Graz 1920–31 and at Innsbruck 1931–38, founding a cosmic-ray observatory on the nearby Hafelekar mountain. After the Nazi annexation of Austria, he emigrated to the US, becoming professor at Fordham University, New York.
Hess made ten balloon ascents in 1911–12 to collect data about atmospheric ionization. Ascending to altitudes of more than 5,000 m/16,000 ft, he established that the intensity of ionization decreased to a minimum at about 1,000 m/3,000 ft, then increased steadily. By making ascents at night—and one during a nearly total solar eclipse—he proved that the ionization was not caused by the Sun. He concluded that radiation enters the atmosphere from outer space.
(1906-1969) US geologist who in 1962 proposed the notion of seafloor spreading. This played a key part in the acceptance of plate tectonics as an explanation of how the Earth's crust is formed and moves.
Hess was born in New York and studied at Yale and Princeton, where he eventually became professor. From 1931, he carried out geophysical research into the oceans, continuing during World War II while in the navy. Later he was one of the main advocates of the Mohole project, whose aim was to drill down through the Earth's crust to gain access to the upper mantle.
Building on the recognition that certain parts of the ocean floor were anomalously young, and the discovery of the global distribution of midocean ridges and central rift valleys, Hess suggested that convection within the Earth was continually creating new ocean floor, rising at midocean ridges and then flowing horizontally to form new oceanic crust. It would follow that the further from the midocean ridge, the older would be the crust—an expectation confirmed by research 1963.
Hess envisaged that the process of seafloor spreading would continue as far as the continental margins, where the oceanic crust would slide down beneath the lighter continental crust into a subduction zone, the entire operation thus constituting a kind of terrestrial conveyor belt.
(1802-1850) Swiss-born Russian chemist, a pioneer in the field of thermochemistry. The law of constant heat summation is named after him.
Hess was born in Geneva, but his family emigrated to Russia. Hess studied at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), and in Stockholm, Sweden, under chemist Jöns Berzelius. Returning to Russia, he took part in a geological expedition to the Urals before setting up a medical practice in Irkutsk. In 1830 he settled in St Petersburg, where he held various academic appointments, becoming professor at the Technological Institute.
Hess's law was published 1840 and states that the heat change in a given chemical reaction depends only on the initial and final states of the system and is independent of the path followed, provided that heat is the only form of energy to enter or leave the system. Every chemical change is either endothermic (absorbing heat) or exothermic (evolving heat). Hess's law is in fact an application of the law of conservation of energy, but this was not formulated until 1842.
In 1842 Hess proposed his second law, the law of thermoneutrality, which states that in exchange reactions of neutral salts in aqueous solution, no heat effect is observed.
(Walter Richard) (1894-1987) German Nazi leader. Imprisoned with Hitler 1924–25, he became his private secretary, taking down Mein Kampf from his dictation. In 1933 he was appointed deputy Führer to Hitler, a post he held until replaced by Goering Sept 1939. On 10 May 1941 he landed by air in the UK with his own compromise peace proposals and was held a prisoner of war until 1945, when he was tried at Nuremberg as a war criminal and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in Spandau prison, Berlin.
He was effectively in charge of the Nazi party organization until his flight 1941. For the last years of his life he was the only prisoner left in Spandau.