(1869-1951) French novelist, playwright, and critic. His work is largely autobiographical and concerned with the conflict between desire and conventional morality. It includes L’Immoraliste/The Immoralist 1902, La Porte étroite/Strait Is the Gate 1909, Les Caves du Vatican/The Vatican Cellars 1914, and Les Faux-monnayeurs/The Counterfeiters 1926. He was a cofounder of the influential literary periodical Nouvelle Revue française and kept an almost lifelong Journal. Nobel Prize for Literature 1947.