(1895-1982) Austrian-born founder of child psychoanalysis in the UK. Her work was influenced by the theories of her father, Sigmund Freud. She held that understanding of the stages of psychological development was essential to the treatment of children, and that this knowledge could only be obtained through observation of the child.
Anna Freud and her father left Nazi-controlled Vienna in 1938 and settled in London. There she began working in a Hampstead nursery. In 1947 she founded the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic, which specialized in the treatment of children and the training of child therapists.
(1856-1939) Austrian physician who pioneered the study of the unconscious mind. He developed the methods of free association and interpretation of dreams that are basic techniques of psychoanalysis, and formulated the concepts of the id, ego, and superego. His books include Die Traumdeutung/The Interpretation of Dreams 1900, Totem and Taboo 1913, and Das Unbehagen in der Kultur/Civilization and its Discontents 1930.
From 1886 to 1938 Freud had a private practice in Vienna, and his theories and writings drew largely on case studies of his own patients, who were mainly upper-middle-class, middle-aged women. In the early 1900s a group of psychoanalysts gathered around Freud. Some of these later broke away and formed their own schools: Alfred Adler in 1911 and Carl Jung in 1913.
The word “psychoanalysis” was, like much of its terminology, coined by Freud, and many terms have passed into popular usage, not without distortion. The way that unconscious forces influence people’s thoughts and actions was Freud’s discovery, and his theory of the repression of infantile sexuality as the root of neuroses in the adult (as in the Oedipus complex) was controversial. Later he also stressed the significance of aggressive drives. His theories have changed the way people think about human nature and brought about a more open approach to sexual matters. Antisocial behavior is now understood to result in many cases from unconscious forces, and these new concepts have led to wider expression of the human condition in art and literature. Nevertheless, Freud’s theories have caused disagreement among psychologists and psychiatrists, and his methods of psychoanalysis cannot be applied in every case.
Freud was born in Freiburg, Moravia (now Príbor in the Czech Republic). He studied medicine in Vienna and was a member of the research team that discovered the local anesthetic effects of cocaine. From 1885 to 1886 he studied hypnosis in Paris under French physiologist Charcot and 1889 in Nancy under two of Charcot's opponents. Freud was also influenced by the research into hysteria of Viennese physician Josef Breuer. Freud believed that hysteria was a single disorder with many clinical expressions.
In about 1895 he abandoned hypnosis for the technique of free association, which led to the interpretation of dreams. Freud drew a comparison between the symbolism of dreams and of mythology and religion, stating that religion was infantile (God as the father image) and neurotic (projection of repressed wishes).
Following the Nazi occupation of Austria in 1938, Freud left for London, where he died.
(1922-) German-born British painter. He is one of the greatest contemporary figurative artists. He combines meticulous accuracy with a disquieting intensity, emphasizing the physicality of his subjects, whether nudes, still lifes, or interiors. His Portrait of Francis Bacon 1952 (Tate Gallery, London) is one of his best-known works. He is a grandson of Sigmund Freud.
(1924-) British journalist, television personality, and until 1987 Liberal Member of Parliament; a grandson of Sigmund Freud.