(c. 1450-1500) Portuguese explorer, the first European to reach the Cape of Good Hope 1488, and to establish a route around Africa. He drowned during an expedition with Pedro Cabral.
(1861-1928) Italian general in World War I. After the Battle of Caporetto Nov 1917 he replaced Cadorna as Italian commander in chief and held the Austro-Hungarian advance on the line of the Piave. He comprehensively defeated the Austrians along their whole line Oct–Nov 1918.
Educated in the military academy of Turin, he joined the army 1881 and saw active service in Abyssinia 1896. In 1915 he was a junior major general and commanded the 23rd Corps in the battles of the Carso 1916. After the war, he became inspector-general of the Italian Army 1919.
(1830-1915) Dictator of Mexico 1877–80 and 1884–1911. After losing the 1876 election, he overthrew the government and seized power. He was supported by conservative landowners and foreign capitalists, who invested in railroads and mines. He centralized the state at the expense of the peasants and Indians, and dismantled all local and regional leadership. He faced mounting and revolutionary opposition in his final years and was forced into exile 1911.
City in Arkansas (USA).