(1888-1978) Greek-born Italian painter. His style presaged Surrealism in its use of enigmatic imagery and dreamlike settings, for example, Nostalgia of the Infinite 1911 (Museum of Modern Art, New York).
In 1917, with Carlo Carrŕ, he founded the school of Metaphysical Painting, which aimed to convey a sense of mystery and hallucination. This was achieved by distorted perspective, dramatic lighting, and the use of dummies and statues in place of human figures. In the 1930s he repudiated the modern movement in art, and began reworking the styles of the old masters.