(mathematician) (c. 287-212 bc) Greek mathematician who made major discoveries in geometry, hydrostatics, and mechanics. He formulated a law of fluid displacement (Archimedes' principle), and is credited with the invention of the Archimedes screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.
Archimedes was born in Syracuse, Sicily. He designed engines of war for the defense of Syracuse, and was killed when the Romans seized the town.
It is alleged that Archimedes’ principle was discovered when he stepped into the public bath and saw the water overflow. He was so delighted that he rushed home naked, crying “Eureka! Eureka!” (“i have found it! I have found it!”) He used his discovery to prove that the goldsmith of the king of Syracuse had adulterated a gold crown with silver.
Archimedes' method of finding mathematical proof to substantiate experiment and observation would become the method of modern science in the High Renaissance. For example, the lever had been used by other scientists, but it was Archimedes who demonstrated mathematically that the ratio of the effort applied to the load raised is equal to the inverse ratio of the distances of the effort and load from the pivot, or fulcrum, of the lever.
Among Archimedes' inventions was a design for a model planetarium able to show the movement of the Sun, Moon, planets, and possibly constellations across the sky.
Archimedes wrote many mathematical treatises, some of which still exist in altered forms in Arabic translation. Among the areas he investigated were the value for p, which he approximated very closely. He also examined the expression of very large numbers, using a special notation. Archimedes also evolved methods to solve cubic equations and to determine square roots by approximation, as well as formulas for the determination of the surface areas and volumes of curved surfaces and solids.
Greek mathematician of the third century b.c.
Microcomputer introduced by Acorn 1987. It was based on a RISC microprocessor called the ARM, and was intended to be the successor to Acorn's BBC Microcomputer. Despite its technically advanced design, it did not prove successful.
An extinct genus of Bryzoa characteristic of the subcarboniferous rocks. Its form is that of a screw.