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rov [ muški rod ]

Prokop, šanac, dubok prokop u zemlji.

canal [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

Artificial waterway constructed for drainage, irrigation, or navigation. Irrigation canals carry water for irrigation from rivers, reservoirs, or wells, and are designed to maintain an even flow of water over the whole length. Navigation and ship canals are constructed at one level between locks, and frequently link with rivers or sea inlets to form a waterway system. The Suez Canal 18and the Panama Canal 19eliminated long trips around continents and dramatically shortened shipping routes.
Irrigation canals fed from the Nile have maintained life in Egypt since the earliest times; the division of the waters of the Upper Indus and its tributaries, which form an extensive system in Pakistan and Punjab, India, was, for more than ten years, a major cause of dispute between India and Pakistan, settled by a treaty 196the Murray basin, Victoria, Australia, and the Imperial and Central Valley projects in California, US, are examples of 19th- and 20th-century irrigation canal development.
Probably the oldest ship canal to be still in use, as well as the longest, is the Grand Canal in China, which links Tianjin and Hangzhou and connects the Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang. It was originally built in three stages 4BC–AD 28reaching a total length of 1,7km/1,1mi. Large sections silted up in later years, but the entire system was dredged, widened, and rebuilt 1958–in conjunction with work on flood protection, irrigation, and hydroelectric schemes. It carries millions of metric tons of freight every year.
Where speed is not a prime factor, the cost-effectiveness of transporting goods by canal has encouraged a revival and Belgium, France, Germany, and the USSR are among countries that have extended and streamlined their canals. The Baltic–Volga waterway links the Lithuanian port of Klaipeda with Kahovka, at the mouth of the Dnieper on the Black Sea, a distance of 2,4km/1,5mi.
A further canal cuts across the north Crimea, thus shortening the voyage of ships from the Dnieper through the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. In Central America, the Panama Canal 1904–links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (km/mi). In North America, the Erie Canal 18linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and opened the northeast and Midwest commercially; the St Lawrence Seaway 1954–extends from Montréal to Lake Ontario (2km/1mi) and, with the deepening of the Welland Canal and some of the river channels, provides a waterway that enables ocean going vessels to travel (during the ice-free months) between the Atlantic and Duluth, Minnesota, US, at the western end of Lake Superior, some 3,7km/2,3mi.
Irrigation canals, dug from ancient times, provided flood control as well as neolithic farming villages with an expanded area of rich alluvial soil, especially in the Tigris-Euphrates valley and along the Nile, where agricultural surpluses eventually allowed for the rise of civilizations. Navigation canals developed after irrigation and drainage canals; often they link two waterways and were at first level and shallow. Soon, those with inclined planes had towpaths along which men and animals towed vessels from one level to the next. Locks were invented to allow passage where great variations in level exist. By the 20th century mechanized tows and self-propelled barges were in use.
Long and narrow strip of water made for boats or for irrigation.
(Astronomy) An indistinct surface feature of Mars once thought to be a system of channels; they are now believed to be an optical illusion.

trench [ imenica {N/A} ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Old Eng. trenche, French tranchée. Related to Trench.
(Irregular plural: trenches).
A ditch dug as a fortification having a parapet of the excavated earth.
A long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor.
Any long cut made in the ground.

coalpit [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

coal-pit

dike [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Old Eng. dic, dike, diche, ditch, AS. dîc dike, ditch.
(Homonym: dyke).
A ditch; a channel for water made by digging.
An embankment to prevent flooding; a levee.
A wall of turf or stone.

ditch [ imenica {N/A} ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Old Eng. dich, orig. the same word as dik. Related to Dike.
(Irregular plural: ditches).
A long narrow excavation in the earth.
Any small natural waterway.

dyke [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

(Homonym: dike).
In earth science, a sheet of igneous rock created by the intrusion of magma (molten rock) across layers of pre-existing rock. (By contrast, a sill is intruded between layers of rock.) It may form a ridge when exposed on the surface if it is more resistant than the rock into which it intruded. A dyke is also a human-made embankment built along a coastline (for example, in the Netherlands) to prevent the flooding of lowland coastal regions.

entrenchment [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

An entrenched fortification; a position protected by trenches; SYN. intrenchment.

pit [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM Old Eng. pit, put, as. pytt a pit, hole, Latin puteus a well, pit.
A concavity in a surface (especially an anatomical depression); SYN. fossa.
A sizeable hole (usually in the ground); SYN. cavity.
A trap in the form of a concealed hole; SYN. pitfall.
An open-surface excavation for extracting stone or slate; SYN. quarry, stone pit.
The stone-like seed at the core of certain fruits.

sap [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

ETYM AS. saep; akin to Old High Germ. saf, German saft, Icel. safi; of uncertain origin; possibly akin to Latin sapere to taste, to be wise, sapa must or new wine boiled thick. Related to Sapid, Sapient.
A watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through the vascular system of a plant.
The fluids that circulate through vascular plants, especially woody ones. Sap carries water and food to plant tissues. Sap contains alkaloids, protein, and starch; it can be milky (as in rubber trees), resinous (as in pines), or syrupy (as in maples).

tunnel [ imenica ]
Generiši izgovor

A passage through or under something, usually underground (especially one for trains or cars).
Passageway through a mountain, under a body of water, or underground. Tunneling is a significant branch of civil engineering in both mining and transport. The difficulties naturally increase with the size, length, and depth of tunnel, but with the mechanical appliances now available no serious limitations are imposed. Granite or other hard rock presents little difficulty to modern power drills. In recent years there have been notable developments in linings (for example, concrete segments and steel liner plates), and in the use of rotary diggers and cutters and explosives.
process
An important preliminary operation is the survey work. The center-line of the tunnel is ranged out on the surface and a series of shafts are sunk, from 1to 3m apart along the line. To transfer this line underground, two marks are made in the cross-timbers, in the center-line, at the bottom of each shaft and prolonged in both directions when the tunnel is being opened out. When the tunnels are of great length, such as those of the Alps, and can only be driven from both ends, the setting out is much more difficult. In this case the center-line is determined by a triangulation survey, and ranged out from marked bases.
Small-section tunnels are usually driven from one end to the other at their full dimensions. Large-section tunnels are often driven in two stages; a pilot heading is excavated in advance which is afterwards enlarged to the full section of the main tunnel.
The normal procedure in tunneling in rock is as follows. Power drills are used to bore successive rounds of holes in the face. Each round is fired and the broken rock removed by hand shovels or mechanical loaders. The section is trimmed to its proper size by further blasting or by pneumatic picks, and timber or steel supports are erected. Sometimes side and top lagging boards are required. In loose ground the top laggings are driven in advance of the last supporting set (fore-poling) before the debris is removed. In sand or gravel the problem is one of support rather than excavation, and fore-poling is necessary. The poling pieces are driven along the sides and top of the tunnel to protect the men from sudden falls or “runs” of ground.
Types of tunnel
hard rock tunneling
In hard rock blasting is necessary to break down the material. The blasting holes are usually from 2 to 3 m long, but in some recent tunnels 5-meter lengths have been adopted. The explosive often used is per cent low-freezing gelatine and sometimes stronger, up to per cent. Liquid air or liquid oxygen has been used as an explosive, and has the advantage of leaving no blasting fumes. The cementation process has been employed successfully for dealing with water from rock fissures. The process consists of injecting liquid cement, at high pressure, through advance boreholes into the water-bearing fissures. The holes radiate outward so as to intersect fissures on the outside of the tunnel area. After the cement has set and the water been sealed off the tunnel is excavated and lined in the ordinary way. A second length is then cemented, excavated, lined and so on until the water-bearing deposit has been passed.
delay-action firing
This technique, recently introduced for tunneling work, possesses many advantages over ordinary electric firing. The various shots in the tunnel face, constituting the complete round, explode either instantaneously or with a time lag of or 4 seconds according to their position in the rock face. Delay-action firing produces a large heap of well broken rock which can be efficiently dealt with by power loaders. Ventilation is provided by a forcing fan delivering through air tubes to the tunnel face. The problem of dust suppression is given close attention on account of the danger of lung ailments, such as silicosis. Wet boring is done in practically all dry tunnels and the broken rock is copiously sprayed during loading.
Rings of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete have gradually superseded cast-iron rings as tunnel supports. The concrete segments are bolted together as with cast-iron segments, but the former possess the advantage of being lighter.
Soft ground tunneling
Soft ground tunneling has developed considerably since Marc Brunel drove a tunnel under the River Thames in 184which established shield tunneling as a British invention. Shields provide overhead protection, and the support given to the face helps to reduce air losses when air pressure is used to keep water out of the workings. The shield is more easily pushed ahead when the ground immediately adjacent to the shield is replaced with soft, puddled clay. Bentonite slurry under pressure is being used to drive sewer tunnels in Hamburg, West Germany, and Warrington, Cheshire; this new development ensures the stability of the ground about to be excavated, and provides lubrication to help with pushing the tunneling mole forward. Alignment is laser-controlled to keep the tunnels within a tolerance on position of mm vertically and 3mm laterally.
A severe problem associated with the use of compressed air for evacuation of water from the workings is decompression sickness (the bends, caisson sickness), which arises when the shifts in the pressurised area are too long or the workmen come out of the compression area too rapidly. Cases occurred in the 19th century as soon as the caisson method of bridge and tunnel construction was introduced.
pipe jacking
An alternative form of tunneling is pipe jacking, in which steel and concrete pipes up to 3.6 m in diameter are forced through the ground by jacks. Short lengths are driven from a jacking station which has the thrust or reaction blocks for the jacks to react against. Longer lengths of up to m are driven using an intermediate jacking station; the tunnel is driven in a concertina fashion so that the leading section of pipe is pushed forward by the jacks at the intermediate station, then the pressure at these jacks is released whilst the rear section of pipe is pushed forward by the jacks, thrusting on the reaction blocks until the two sections of pipe have closed up again. Pipe jacking has been used for box sections for road traffic; the largest in the world (197is at the Brent Cross intersection in north London, where an 8.5-meter-wide concrete underpass was cast in three sections to give a 46-meter-long tunnel driven into position by 3000-tonne jacks.
Major tunnels include.
Orange–Fish River (South Africa) 197Longest irrigation tunnel, km/mi.
Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel (US) 196Combined bridge, causeway, and tunnel structure, km/17.5 mi.
St Gotthard (Switzerland–Italy) 198Longest road tunnel, 16.3 km/10.1 mi.
Seikan (Japan) 1964–8Longest rail tunnel, Honshu–Hokkaido, under Tsugaru Strait, 53.9 km/33.5 mi, 23.3 km/14.5 mi undersea (however, a bullet-train service is no longer economical).
Simplon (Switzerland–Italy) 190Longest rail tunnel on land, 19.8 km/12.3 mi.
Rogers Pass (Canada) 198Longest tunnel in the western hemisphere, km/mi long, through the Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia.
Channel tunnel linking England and France (begun by the French and British governments 198and opened 1994).



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