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Bugarska [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Evropi.

Bulgaria [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A country in eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
Country in SE Europe, bounded N by Romania, W by Yugoslavia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, S by Greece, SE by Turkey, and E by the Black Sea.
Under the 19constitution, Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. There is a single-chamber legislature, the 240-member national assembly, directly elected every five years by a system of proportional representation. The prime minister is the leader of the party or group with a majority in the assembly. The state president, who is also commander in chief of the armed forces, is popularly elected for a five-year term.
In the ancient world Bulgaria comprised Thrace and Moesia and was the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. It was occupied in the 6th century AD by the Slavs, followed by Bulgars from Asia in the 7th century (the Bulgarian language combines Slavonic and other Balkan influences). In 8Khan Boris adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and under his son Simeon (893–927), who assumed the title of tsar, Bulgaria became a leading power. It was ruled by Byzantium from the 11th century until 118when a second Bulgarian empire was established. From 13Bulgaria formed part of the Ottoman Empire for almost 5years, becoming an independent kingdom 1908.
Bulgaria allied itself with Germany during World War I. From 19a government of the leftist Agrarian Party introduced land reforms, but was overthrown 19by a fascist coup. An authoritarian pro-monarchist government was established 19under King Boris III. During World War II Bulgaria again allied itself with Germany, being occupied 19by the USSR.
In 19the monarchy was abolished, and a republic was proclaimed under a communist-leaning alliance, the Fatherland Front, led by Georgi Dimitrov (1882–1949). Bulgaria reverted largely to its 19frontiers. The new republic adopted a Soviet-style constitution 194with nationalized industries and cooperative farming introduced. Vulko Chervenkov, Dimitrov's brother-in-law, became the dominant political figure 1950–5introducing a Stalinist regime. He was succeeded by the more moderate Todor Zhivkov, under whom Bulgaria became one of the Soviet Union's most loyal satellites.
haphazard reforms
During the 198the country faced mounting economic problems, chiefly caused by the rising cost of energy imports. During 1985–8under the promptings of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, a haphazard series of administrative and economic reforms was instituted. This proved insufficient to placate reformists either inside or outside the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP). In Nov 198influenced by the democratization movements sweeping other East European countries and backed by the army and the USSR, the foreign secretary Petar Mladenov ousted Zhivkov. Mladenov became leader of the BCP and president of the state council, and quickly promoted genuine political pluralism. In Dec 19legislation was passed to end the BCP’s “leading role” in the state and allow the formation of free opposition parties and labor unions; political prisoners were freed; and the secret-police wing responsible for dissident surveillance was abolished.
relations with Turkey
Bulgaria’s relations with neighboring Turkey deteriorated during 198following the flight of 300,0ethnic Turks from Bulgaria to Turkey after the Bulgarian government’s violent suppression of their protests at the program of “Bulgarianization” (forcing them to adopt Slavic names and resettle elsewhere). The new Mladenov government announced Dec 19that the forced assimilation program would be abandoned; this provoked demonstrations by anti-Turk nationalists (abetted by BCP conservatives) but encouraged the gradual return of most Turkish refugees to Bulgaria, greatly improving relations with Turkey.
market economy
In Feb 19Alexander Lilov, a reformer, was elected party chief, and Andrei Lukanov became prime minister. Zhivkov was imprisoned on charges of corruption and abuse of power. A government decree relegalized private farming and a phased lifting of price controls commenced April 19as part of a drive toward a market economy. Huge price rises and food shortages were the result. In the same month the BCP renamed itself the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Petar Mladenov resigned as president July 199and the opposition leader Dr Zhelyu Zhelev was elected in his place.
In Nov 199after mass demonstrations in Sofia, a general strike, and a boycott of parliament by opposition deputies, the government of Andrei Lukanov resigned. He was replaced by a nonparty politician, Dimitur Popov (1927– ), heading a caretaker coalition government, and the strikes by workers and students were called off.
end of communist rule
A new constitution was adopted July 19which defined the country as a parliamentary republic with a “democratic, constitutional, and welfare state”. The general election of that year resulted in a hung parliament and the right-of-center Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) formed a minority government, headed by Filip Dimitrov. This was Bulgaria’s first wholly noncommunist government for years. In 19Zhelyu Zhelev became Bulgaria’s first directly elected president, capturing 5of the vote, and a nonparty “government of experts” was formed, with Lyuben Berov, a professor of economics, as prime minister. Berov resigned Sept 199having suffered a heart attack, and Zhelev dissolved parliament and appointed Reneta Indjova, an economist, as interim prime minister pending a general election. This was held Dec 19and the former communist Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) won 1of the 2assembly seats. Zhan Videnov, hard-line leader of the BSP, became prime minister.
Bulgaria was formally invited to apply for European Community (now European Union) membership June 199It agreed to joint military operations with Romania Feb 1994.

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