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Grčka [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Evropi na Balkanu.

Greece [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

Country in SE Europe, comprising the S Balkan peninsula, bounded N by the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, NW by Albania, NE by Turkey, E by the Aegean Sea, S by the Mediterranean Sea, and W by the Ionian Sea.
government.
The 19constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government, with a president who is head of state, a prime minister who is head of government, and a single-chamber parliament. The president, elected by parliament for a five-year term, appoints the prime minister and cabinet. Parliament has 3members, all elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term, and the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to it. Bills passed by parliament must be ratified by the president, whose veto can be overridden by an absolute majority of the total number of members. In 19the constitution was amended, limiting the powers of the president in relation to those of the prime minister.
history.
For ancient history, see Greece, ancient. From the 14th century Greece came under Ottoman Turkish rule, and except for the years 1686–171when the Peloponnese was occupied by the Venetians, it remained Turkish until the outbreak of the War of Independence 182British, French, and Russian intervention 182which brought about the destruction of the Turkish fleet at Navarino, led to the establishment of Greek independence 182Prince Otto of Bavaria was placed on the throne 183his despotic rule provoked a rebellion 184which set up a parliamentary government, and another 186when he was deposed and replaced by Prince George of Denmark. Relations with Turkey were embittered by the Greeks' desire to recover Macedonia, Crete, and other Turkish territories with Greek populations. A war 18ended in disaster, but the Balkan Wars 1912–won most of the disputed areas for Greece.
In a period of internal conflict from 191two monarchs were deposed, and there was a republic 1923–2when a military coup restored George II, who in the following year established a dictatorship under Joannis Metaxas.
monarchy reestablished.
An Italian invasion 19was successfully resisted, but an intensive attack by Germany 19overwhelmed the Greeks. During the German occupation of Greece 1941–4a communist-dominated resistance movement armed and trained a guerrilla army, and after World War II the National Liberation Front, as it was called, wanted to create a socialist state. If the Greek royalist army had not had massive assistance from the US, under the provisions of the Truman Doctrine, this undoubtedly would have happened. A civil war 1946–ended when the royalists defeated the communists. The monarchy was reestablished under King Paul, who was succeeded by his son Constantine 1964.
military junta.
Dissatisfaction with the government and conflicts between the king and his ministers resulted in a coup 196replacing the monarchy with a new regime, which, despite its democratic pretensions, was little more than a military dictatorship, with Col George Papadopoulos as its head. All political activity was banned, and opponents of the government were forced out of public life.
republic.
In 19Greece declared itself a republic, and Papadopoulos became president. A civilian cabinet was appointed, but before the year was out another coup brought Lt Gen Phaidon Ghizikis to the presidency, with Adamantios Androutsopoulos as prime minister. The government's failure to prevent the Turkish invasion of Cyprus led to its downfall, and a former prime minister, Constantine Karamanlis, was recalled from exile to form a new Government of National Salvation. He immediately ended martial law, press censorship, and the ban on political parties, and in the 19general election his New Democracy Party (ND) won a decisive majority in parliament.
A referendum the same year rejected the return of the monarchy, and in 19a new constitution for a democratic “Hellenic Republic” was adopted, with Constantine Tsatsos as president. The ND won the 19general election with a reduced majority, and in 19Karamanlis resigned as prime minister and was elected president. In 19Greece became a full member of the European Economic Community (EEC), having been an associate since 1962.
Greek socialism.
The Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) won an absolute majority in parliament in the 19general election. Its leader, Andreas Papandreou, became Greece's first socialist prime minister. PASOK had been elected on a radical socialist platform, which included withdrawal from the EEC, the removal of US military bases, and a program of domestic reform. Important social changes, such as lowering the voting age to 1the legalization of civil marriage and divorce, and an overhaul of the universities and the army, were carried out; but instead of withdrawing from Europe, Papandreou was content to obtain a modification of the terms of entry, and, rather than close US bases, he signed a five-year agreement on military and economic cooperation. In 19he also signed a ten-year economic-cooperation agreement with the USSR.
Papandreou defeated.
Despite introducing austerity measures to deal with rising inflation, PASOK won a comfortable majority in the 19elections. Criticism of Papandreou grew 19when close aides were implicated in a banking scandal. He lost the general elections 19and Tzanis Tzannetakis, an ND backbencher, formed Greece's first all-party government for years. However, this soon broke up and after months of negotiation Xenophon Zolotas (PASOK) put together a government of unity, comprising communists, socialists, conservatives, and nonpolitical figures.
Constantine Mitsotakis of the ND was sworn in as the new premier April 19and formed a new all-party government after his party failed to win an outright majority in the elections. In June Karamanlis was again elected president. Papandreou was cleared of all corruption charges Jan 199In Sept 19Mitsotakis dissolved parliament after the ND lost its overall majority (three of its members had defected to the newly formed left-of-center Political Spring party). PASOK won an outright majority in the Oct 19elections and Papandreou was returned as prime minister. In March 19Costis Stephanopoulos, PASOK's candidate, was elected president.
foreign relations.
An agreement on the siting of US bases in Greece was signed 199In 19Greece refused to recognize the independence declaration of the breakaway Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, saying it implied territorial claims on the Greek province of the same name. The republic was granted United Nations membership under the provisional name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 199Athens' decision to impose a trade embargo against Macedonia Feb 19brought widespread condemnation, and in April 19the European Commission took the unprecedented step of prosecuting Greece in the European Court of Justice.(Homonym: grease).
A republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula; known for grapes and olives and olive oil; Also called: Ellas.
Unincorporated community in New York (USA).



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