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Argentina [ ženski rod {geologija} ]

Država u Južnoj Americi, Španski jezik.

Argentina [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A republic in southern South America; 2nd largest country in South America; Also called: the Argentine.
Type genus of the Argentinidae: argentines; Also called: genus Argentina.
Country in South America, bounded W and S by Chile, N by Bolivia, and E by Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean.
government
The return of civilian rule 19brought a return of the 18constitution, with some changes in the electoral system; in 19further important revisions were made. The constitution provides for a federal system with a president and vice-president elected by universal suffrage and both serving four-year terms, renewable only once. The president is head of state and appoints a prime minister as head of government.
Argentina is a federal union of provinces, one national territory, and the Federal District. The two-chamber congress consists of a 69-member senate chosen by provincial legislatures for a nine-year term, and a directly elected 254-member chamber of deputies serving a four-year term. One senator from each state is elected to represent minorities. Each province has its own elected governor and legislature that deal with matters not assigned to the federal government.
history
Originally inhabited by South American Indian peoples, Argentina was first visited by Europeans in the early 16th century. Buenos Aires was founded first 15and again 15after being abandoned because of Indian attacks. Argentina was made a Spanish viceroyalty 177and the population rose against Spanish rule 181Full independence was achieved 1816.
After the struggle with Spain, Argentina was in a state of chaos. From 18to 185the dictator Juan Manuel Rosas controlled Buenos Aires and established his authority over the interior. Later regimes committed themselves to laissez-faire economic policies which tied in Argentina to the international economy.
rise of Péron
Since 19Argentina has been subject to alternate civilian and military rule. The Radical Civic Union (UCR) held power from 19until the first military coup 193Civilian government returned 193and a second military coup 19paved the way for the rise of Lt Gen Juan Domingo Perón. Strengthened by the popularity of his wife, María Eva Duarte de Perón (the legendary “Evita”), Perón created the Peronista party, based on extreme nationalism and social improvement. Evita Perón died 195and her husband was overthrown and civilian rule restored 195Perón continued to direct the Peronista movement from exile in Spain. A coup 19restored military rule, and the success of a later Peronist party, Frente Justicialista de Liberación, brought Héctor Cámpora to the presidency 197After three months he resigned to make way for Perón, with his third wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón (“Isabel”), as vice president. Perón died 19and was succeeded by his widow.
Videla and the “dirty war”
Two years later, a military coup ousted Isabel and a three-person junta, led by Lt Gen Jorge Videla, was installed. The constitution was amended, and political and labor-union activity banned. The years 1976–witnessed a ferocious campaign by the junta against left-wing elements, the “dirty war”, during which it is believed that between 6,0and 15,0people “disappeared”. Videla retired 197to be succeeded by General Roberto Viola, who promised a return to democracy. Viola died 19and was replaced by General Leopoldo Galtieri.
Falklands conflict
Galtieri, seeking popular support and wishing to distract attention from the deteriorating economy, ordered 19the invasion of the Islas Malvinas, the Falkland Islands, over which the UK’s claim to sovereignty had long been disputed. After a short war, during which 7Argentinians were killed, the islands were reoccupied by the UK. With the failure of the Falklands invasion, Galtieri was replaced in a bloodless coup by General Reynaldo Bignone. A military inquiry reported 19that Galtieri’s junta was to blame for the defeat. Several officers were tried, and some, including Galtieri, given prison sentences, while an amnesty was granted to all those convicted of political crimes during the previous ten years. The ban on political and labor-union activity was lifted and general elections were held Oct 198The main parties were the UCR, led by Raúl Alfonsín, and the Peronist Justicialist Party (PJ), led by Italo Lúder.
Alfonsín’s reforms and investigations
Having won the election, Alfonsín announced radical reforms in the armed forces (leading to the retirement of more than half the senior officers) and the trial of the first three military juntas that had ruled Argentina after 197He set up the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (CONADEP) to investigate the “dirty war”. A report by CONADEP 19listed over 8,0people who had disappeared and 1,3army officers who had been involved in the campaign of repression. Alfonsín’s government was soon faced with enormous economic problems, resulting in recourse to help from the International Monetary Fund and an austerity program.
Menem tackles high inflation
The presidential election of May 19was won by the PJ candidate, Carlos Menem. Alfonsín handed over power July 198five months before his term of office formally ended, to allow Menem to come to grips with the high inflation (more than 1,00a year) that threatened to bring about increasing social unrest. The new government established a rapport with the UK authorities and full diplomatic relations were restored Feb 19(the issue of sovereignty over the Falklands was skirted). President Menem was elected leader of the PJ in Aug, and in Dec 19a rebellion by junior army officers was put down.
A financial scandal involving Menem's relatives and aides threatened the PJ's success in midterm elections, but support for Menem's economic policies secured a victory. In 19inflation was, at 84%, the lowest it had been since 198In 19the government introduced a new currency, the peso, to replace the austral, which had been rendered almost worthless by inflation.
Menem’s constitutional reforms approved
In the Oct 19assembly elections the PJ won a clear majority, and in Dec the senate approved Menem's constitutional reform proposals, allowing him to seek reelection. Initially rejected by the house of representatives, the proposals had been amended to incorporate opposition requests, including the assignment of key posts to UCR candidates and the reduction of the presidential term from six to four years.
The PJ won the April 19assembly elections with a reduced majority, and in Aug the revised constitution was approved by a special constitutional assembly.



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