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Uzbekistan [ imenica {geologija} ]
Generiši izgovor

A landlocked republic in west central Asia; formerly an Asian Soviet; Also called: Uzbekiston, Uzbek.
Country in central Asia, bounded N by Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea, E by Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, S by Afghanistan, and W by Turkmenistan.
government
The 19constitution provides for a directly elected president, serving not more than two consecutive five-year terms, and a 150-member supreme assembly, also directly elected for a five-year term. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into regions.
history
The Turkmen are Turkic-speaking descendants of the Mongol invaders who swept across Asia from the 13th century. Part of Turkestan, Turkmenistan was conquered by Tsarist Russia 1865–7with the emir of Bukhara becoming a vassal. The Tashkent soviet gradually extended its power 1917–2with the emir of Bukhara deposed 192Uzbekistan became a constituent republic of the USSR 192although guerrilla resistance continued for a number of years.
Some 160,0Meskhetian Turks were forcibly transported from their native Georgia to Uzbekistan by Stalin 194After World War II Uzbekistan became a major cotton-growing region, producing two-thirds of Soviet output. The Uzbek Communist Party (UCP) leadership, who controlled the republic like a feudal fief, were both notorious for the extent of their corruption and for their obedience to Moscow. In return, Uzbekistan received large subsidies.
growth of nationalism
From the late 198there was an upsurge in Islamic consciousness provoking violent clashes with Meskhetian, Armenian, and Kyrgyz minority communities, particularly in the Ferghana Valley, which had become a hotbed for Wahabi Islamic militancy. In Sept 19an Uzbek nationalist organization, the Birlik (“Unity”) People’s Movement, was formed. The UCP, under the leadership of Islam Karimov, responded by declaring the republic’s “sovereignty” in June 19and replacing Russian administrators with Uzbeks.
independence recognized
President Karimov did not immediately condemn the Aug 19anti-Gorbachev attempted coup in Moscow. However, once the coup was defeated, the UCP broke its links with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and on Aug 19the republic declared its independence. Uzbekistan joined the new Commonwealth of Independent States Dec 199On Dec Karimov was directly elected president, capturing 8of the vote. In Feb 19the republic joined the Economic Cooperation Organization, founded by Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey 197and admission to the United Nations was granted in March; US diplomatic recognition was also achieved at this point.
authoritarian secular rule
President Karimov embarked on a strategy of gradualist market-centered economic reform, although foreign investment was also encouraged. He adopted an authoritarian, secular style of rule, and was determined to prevent the spread of Islamic fundamentalism. Inter-ethnic conflict within the republic was suppressed through a firm approach, with the nationalist Birlik party suspended and the Erk Party hounded. Communist Party cells were banned from the armed forces, the police, and the civil service, and the UCP changed its designation, becoming the People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (PDP). Nevertheless, the former UCP apparatus and personnel remained very much in control, with opposition groups either harassed or, in the case of the Islamic Renaissance Party, banned. A coalition of clergymen, led by the mufti of Tashkent, called for fresh multiparty elections and an end to communist domination. Ethnic Russians, formerly preponderant in the industrial work force and bureaucracy, began to leave the republic,
with adverse economic consequences. In Jan 19several people died in student-led food riots in Tashkent after prices had been liberalized. Aided by an inflow of funds from Saudi Arabia and despite the secularist stance of President Karimov, a revival of Islamic teaching and studies commenced. A government crackdown on Islamic fundamentalists was announced 199Uzbekistan agreed to form a single economic zone with neighboring Kazakhstan 199In the Jan 19assembly elections the ruling PDP won a clear majority.

Uzbekistan [ muški rod {geologija} ]

Država na zapadu centralne Azije, ranije sovjetska republika.



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